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# Concentration and particle size

## Concentration in parts per million (ppm)

Unfortunately, the silver concentration alone does not say all that much about the quality of colloidal silver. Of course, if it contains no silver at all, it will not have any effect as silver. But a high concentration of silver alone is certainly no guarantee that the product will actually be effective.

Let me try to explain why the concentration of silver alone doesn’t mean very much.

The concentration of silver is generally expressed in terms of ppm. Ppm means parts per million, or one millionth part, just as % means one hundredth part. Another unit that can be used to express ppm is mg/l (milligrams per litre), which is a bit easier to grasp. Now imagine that you have 1 litre of water with a silver concentration of 10 mg/l (10 ppm). So this litre contains 10 milligrams of silver. Now 10 milligrams of silver has a volume of 1 cubic millimetre, which would be equivalent to a cube of silver measuring 1 mm on each side.

So what happens if you drink this litre all at once and therefore swallow the little cube of silver? Do you think that you would notice anything or that it could have any effect?

Now imagine the same litre of water with the same concentration of silver, in other words 10 mg/l, but with the cube of 1 mm divided into very tiny particles measuring 0.65 nanometre. This litre then contains 3.3 billion times 3.3 billion particles. These particles are 1000 times smaller than a bacterial cell and are therefore able to penetrate everywhere into the body. Which of these two products do you think would have more of an effect?

A unit which actually does tell us a lot about the effectiveness of colloidal silver is the “total effective surface”, which is equal to the total surface area of all the particles in the liquid.

If a litre contains 1 particle in the shape of a cube measuring 1 mm on each side, then the total surface area is 6 mm2/l.

If the same litre contains 3.3 billion times 3.3 billion particles measuring 0.65 nm (nanometre), then the total surface area is 7.1 m2/l.

You will never come across colloidal silver in the form of particles smaller than 0.65 nm, simply because it’s impossible to make silver particles any smaller. This is because the minimum number of silver atoms needed to make a particle of silver is 20, which results in a particle of 0.65 nm.

You can carry out calculations yourself based on the concentration of silver and the particle size using a tool that you can find in the chapter on quality.

### Concentration in parts per million (ppm)

Parts per million, abbreviated as ppm) means one millionth part, just as % means one hundredth part. An equivalent unit that is somewhat easier to grasp is mg/l. For example, 10 ppm is the same as 10 mg/l, which means that 1 litre of Crystal colloidal silver suspension contains 10 milligrams of silver. This 10 mg of silver has a volume of 1 cubic millimetre.

### Total effective surface

The total effective surface is simply the total surface area of all the particles in the liquid. As an example, let’s take Crystal colloidal silver with a silver concentration of 10 mg/l (ppm). If the particle size is 1 mm, then the total effective surface is only 6 mm2/litre; if the particle size is 0.65 nm, it’s no less than 7.1 m2/litre.